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初中英语知识点: 语法时态

时间:2015-06-27 来源:台湾宾果28_台湾宾果28平台【官网授权】 未知 作者:实习编辑 点击:

hexintishi: yufa: zhijieyinyubianjianjieyinyu。 zhijieyinyongbierendehuajiaozhijieyinyu,yonglaizhuanshubierendehuajiaojianjieyinyu。li: he said, he will go to beijing tomorrow. (zhijieyinyu) he said that he would go to beijing the next day. zhijieyinyubianjianjieyinyushishitai、renchengjiyixieshijianhuogebie

  语法: 直接引语变间接引语。
  直接引用别人的话叫直接引语,用来转述别人的话叫间接引语。例:
  He said, "He will go to Beijing tomorrow." (直接引语)
  He said that he would go to Beijing the next day.
  直接引语变间接引语时时态、人称及一些时间或个别词都要做相应的改变。
  ①时态:
  一般现在时→一般过去时 一般将来时→过去将来时
  现在进行时→过去进行时 一般过去时→过去完成时
  现在完成时→过去完成时
  * 但真理性的句子时态不变。例:
  He said: "The sun rises in the east."
  He said that the sun rises in the east.
  他说太阳从东方升起。
  ②时间:
  now→then, last month→the month before.
  today→ that day, three days ago→three days before.
  tonight→that night, tomorrow→the next day.
  yesterday→the day before, the day after tomorrow→in two days.
  ③其它变化:
  this→that these→those here→there
  come→go
  句式的改变:
  ①直接引语是陈述句加"that"可以省去。例:
  He said, "My sister was here three days ago."→
  He said that his sister had been there three days before.
  ②直接引语是一般疑问句,变成用if/whether引导的宾语从句,人称时态等作相应改变。
  Mother asked me, "Did you buy any meat for lunch?"→
  Mother asked me if/whether I had bought some meat for lunch.
  ③直接引语是特殊问句,变成由原来疑问词一样的连接词引导的宾语从句,时态人称等作相应改变。例:
  "What do you do?" he asked me.
  He asked me what I did.
  ④直接引语是选择问句变成由whether或if引导的宾语从句。
  "Do you like English or Chinese?" He asked me.
  He asked me whether I liked English or Chinese.
 
  语法: 被动语态
  1.英语中动词有两种语态: 主动语态和被动语态
  主动语态表示主语是谓语动词动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是谓语动词动作的承受者。
  当台湾宾果28强调谁是某个动作的执行者,即"谁做了某种事情"时,用主动语态。
  eg: Daniel bought a new computer 丹尼尔买了一台新电脑。(不是别人)
  如果主语不是动作的执行者,而是动作的承受者时,就是被动语态。
  eg: A new computer was bought by Daniel 一台新电脑被丹尼尔买了。
  被动语态的谓语由be + 动词的过去分词构成,其中be是助动词,随时态改变。
  一般现在时的被动语态由"am / is / are +动词的过去分词"构成。
  一般过去时的被动语态由"was / were +动词的过去分词"构成。
  2.被动语态的用法:
  当不知道或没必要说明动作的执行者时,用被动语态。
  eg: Rice is grown in South China. 华南种植水稻。(没必要说明是谁种)
  This bridge was built 100 years ago. 这座桥是100年前建的。(不知道谁建的)
  Passive voice with 'by'
  在被动语态中,如果台湾宾果28也要把动作的执行者表达出来的话,台湾宾果28就在被动句子的后面,用 "by+动作的执行者(宾格)"来表示。
  e.g. Jack broke the window. (主动语态)
  The window was broken by Jack. (被动语态) 窗户是被杰克打碎的。
  Meals are cooked by her mother at home. 在家饭是她母亲烧的。
  The book was written by him several years ago. 这本书是他几年前写的。
  3.难点:
  1). 当一个含有复合宾语(宾语+宾补)的句子变为被动语态时, 只能把宾语变为被动语态的主语,宾补还放在原来的位置。
  e.g. We call him Xiao Wang.--- He is called Xiao Wang.
  He cut his hair short.--- His hair was cut short.
  2). 带双宾语的动词变为被动语态时, 常常把间接宾语变为被动语态的主语;如果直接宾语变为被动语态的主语时,间接宾语前要加介词to或 for.
  e.g. Someone gave the boy an apple.-- The boy was given an apple.
  An apple was given to the boy.
  His mother bought a present for him.--- He was bought a present.
  A present was bought for him.
  3). 在let, hear, watch, see, help, have 等词的句子中,主动语态不加to, 被动语态要加 to.
  e.g. The boss makes us work 12 hours a day.--- We are made to work 12 hours a day.
  They heard the children sing that morning.--- The children were heard to sing that morning.
  ⑤直接引语是祈使句,根据说话语气变成ask/tell/order warn sb. to do sth.的结构。例:
  She said to me, "Stand up."→
  She asked me to stand up.
  Father said to his son, "Don't play football in the street."→
  Father told his son not to play football in the street.
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