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初中二年级英语知识点复习: 语法

时间:2015-07-20 来源:台湾宾果28_台湾宾果28平台【官网授权】 未知 作者:实习编辑 点击:

台湾宾果28hexintishi: meitianjianchizhenglizhishidian,daokaoshishicainengfangbianfuxi。jingpinxuexiwangweidajiazhenglilechueryingyuxiaxueqiqimobeikaozhishidianfuxi,gongdajiacankaoyuedu。 yi、xianzaiwanchengshidewanchengyongfaheweiwanchengyongfa 1.xianzaiwanchengshidewanchengyongfa xianzaiwanchengshidewanchengyongfazhideshidongzuofashengzaiguoqumouyishikebingyijieshu,dangaidong

  每天坚持整理知识点,到考试时才能方便复习。精品学习网为大家整理了初二英语下学期期末备考知识点复习,供大家参考阅读。
 
  一、现在完成时的"完成用法"和"未完成用法"
  1.现在完成时的"完成用法"
  现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已结束,但该动作对现在产生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系。例如: He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了。
  (动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的情况--灯现在不亮了。)
  现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过去时间状语(如: already,yet,before,recently等)、频度时间状语(如: never,ever,once等)、包括现在时刻在内的时间状语(如: this morning / month /year...,today等)连用。
  例如: Have you found your pen yet?你已找到你的钢笔了吗?
  2.现在完成时的"未完成用法"
  现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去。
  例如: He has lived here since 1978.自从1978年以来,他一直住在这儿。(动作起始于1978年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去。)
  I have been in the army for more than 5 years.台湾宾果28在部队已经呆了五年多了。(动作开始于5年前,一直延续至今,有可能还要继续下去。)
  此种用法的句中常需一个表示一段时间的状语(由since或for引导),或表示与现在时刻相连的时间状语(如: up to now,so far到目前为止)等。
  例如: I have heard nothing from him up to now.到目前为止台湾宾果28没有他的任何消息。
  注意: (1)现在完成时的未完成用法只适用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词,即瞬间完成或延续时间很短的动词。如: come,go,arrive,leave,join,become,die等。
  (2)现在完成时常见两种句型:
  ①主语+have / has been+for短语
  ②It is+一段时间+ since从句
  例如: He has been in the League for three years.或It is three years since he joined the League. 他入团已三年了。
  3、延续性动词和终止性动词的概念
  英语中,动词按其动作发生的方式、动作发生过程的长短,可分为延续性动词和终止性动词。
  延续性动词表示能够延续的动作,这种动作可以延续下去或产生持久影响。如: learn, work, stand, lie, know, walk, keep, have, wait, watch, sing, read, sleep, live, stay等。
  终止性动词也称非延续性动词、瞬间动词或短暂性动词,表示不能延续的动作,这种动作发生后立即结束。如open, close, finish, begin, come, go, arrive, reach, get to, leave, move, borrow,buy等。
  4、延续性动词的用法特征
  1.延续性动词可以用于现在完成时,其完成时态可与表示"段时间"的状语连用。表示"段时间"的短语有: for two years, during the past three years, since last year, how long等。如: I have learned English since I came here.自从台湾宾果28来到这儿就学英语了。
  2.延续性动词不能与表示短暂时间的"点时间"状语连用。如: It raind at eight yesterday morning.(误) rain为延续性动词,而at eight表示"点时间",前后显然矛盾。如果用延续性动词表示一瞬间的动作,可以借助come, begin, get等终止性动词来表示。上句可改为: It began to rain at eight yesterday morning.(正)又如:
  -When did you get to know Jack? -Two years ago.
  -Then you've known each other for more than two years. -That's right.
  5、终止性动词的用法特征
  1.终止性动词可用来表示某一动作完成,因此可用于现在完成时。如:
  The train has arrived.火车到了。
  Have you joined the computer group? 你加入电脑小组了吗?
  2.终止性动词表示的动作极其短暂,不能持续。因此,不可与表示一段时间的状语连用(只限肯定式)。如:
  (1)他死了三年了。 误: He has died for three years.
  正: He has been dead for three years. 正: He died three years ago.
  正: It is three years since he died. 正: Three years has passed since he died.
  (2)他来这儿五天了。 误: He has come here for five days.
  正: He has been here for five days.  正: He came here five days ago.
  正: It is five days since he came here. 正: Five days has passed since he came here.
  (1)、(2)句中的die、come为终止性动词,不能与表示"段时间"的状语连用。那么,应如何正确表达呢?可以采用下面的四种方法:
  (1)将句中终止性动词转换为相应的延续性动词,如上面两例中的第一种正确表达方式。下面列举几例: leave→be away, borrow→keep, buy→have, begin/start→be on, die→be dead, move to→live in, finish→be over, join→be in/be a member of, open sth.→keep sth. open, fall ill→be ill, get up→be up, catch a cold→have a cold。
  (2)将句中表示"段时间"的状语改为表示过去确定时间的状语,如下面两例中的第二种正确表达方式。
  (3)用句型"It is+段时间+since..."表达原意,如上面两例中的第三种正确表达方式。
  (4)用句型"时间+has passed+since..."表达原意,如上面两例中的第四种正确表达方式。
  3.终止性动词可用于现在完成时否定式中,成为可以延续的状态,因而可与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:  He hasn't left here since 1986. I haven't heard from my father for two weeks.
  4.终止性动词的否定式与until/till连用,构成"not+终止性动词+until/till ..."的句型,意为"直到......才......"。如: You can't leave here until I arrive.直到台湾宾果28到了,你才能离开这里。
  I will not go to bed until I finish drawing the picture tonight.
  今天晚上直到台湾宾果28画完画,台湾宾果28才上床睡觉。
  5.终止性动词可以用于when引导的时间状语从句中,但不可以用于while引导的时间状语从句中。when表示的时间是"点时间"(从句谓语动词用终止性动词),也可以是"段时间"(从句谓语动词用延续性动词)。而while表示的是一个较长的时间或过程,从句谓语动词用延续性动词。如: When we reached London, it was twelve o'clock. (reach为终止性动词)
  Please look after my daughter while/when we are away. (be away为延续性动词短语)
  6.终止性动词完成时不可与how long连用(只限于肯定式)。如:
  误: How long have you come here? 正: How long have you been here?
  正: When did you come here?
 
  二、现在完成时与一般过去时的区别
  1. 一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作。说话的侧重点只在于陈述一件过去的事情,不强调对"现在"产生的影响。如:
  He visited Guilin in 1998.他1998年参观过桂林。(只说明去桂林的时间)
  2. 现在完成时表示动作发生在过去,对现在造成了影响或产生了结果。不与确定的过去时间状语连用。如:
  Jill has bought a new computer.吉尔买了一台新电脑。(着重点是现在有了一台新电脑)
  3. 两种时态的区分
  (1)一般过去时的谓语动词用过去式,而现在完成时的谓语基本构成是"助动词have /has +过去分词"。如: The film started at 7 o'clock. He has been a teacher for many years.
  (2)一般过去时通常与表示过去的时间状语连用。如: yesterday, last week, two years ago, just now, in 2002等;而现在完成时则常与just, already, ever, never等副词和these days, this week, since..., for...等表示一段时间的状语连用。
  看看以下的几组句子,有什么区别?① Have you seen the film?(A) Did you see the film?(B)
  [说明] 你看过这部电影吗?(A)句强调的是被问者对剧情是否了解;(B)句强调的是看这部电影的动作是否发生过,并不强调是否知道其内容。
  ② How has he done it?(A)  How did he do it?(B)
  [说明]他是怎么做的这件事?(A)句强调的是他做这件事的方式对现在产生了某种影响;
  (B)句单纯的询问做这件事的方式。
  ③ He has lived in Beijing for 8 years.(A)  He lived in Beijing for 8 years.(B)
  [说明]他在北京住了8年。(A)句讲的是到目前为止他在北京住了8年,可能还会继续在北京住下去。(B)句讲的是他在北京住过8年,现在不在北京了。
 
  三、现在完成时考点例析
  现在完成时是较难掌握、中考考查较多的时态。涉及的考点有:
 
  一、考查其构成
  "助动词have (has) +动词过去分词"构成现在完成时。如:
  1. Kate's never seen Chinese films,____ ? A. hasn't she B. has she C. isn't she D. is she
  析: 陈述句部分含否定词never,简略问句部分要用肯定式,又因Kate's是Kate has的缩写,故选B。
  2. His uncle has already posted the photos to him. (改为否定句)
  His uncle ______ posted the photos to him ______.
  析: already常用在肯定句中,yet常用在否定句、疑问句中,故填hasn't, yet。
  3. -Ann has gone to Shanghai. -So ______her parents. A. has B. had C. did D. have
  析: "so+助/系/情态动词+主语"结构中的动词形式应与前句结构中动词形式保持一致,又后句的主语为her parents是复数,故选D。
 
  二、考查其用法与标志词
  (一)当句中有never, ever, just, already, yet, before等时,常用现在完成时。如:
  1. -Mum, may I go out and play basketball?  -______you______ your homework yet?
  A. Do; finish B. Are; finishing C. Did; finish D. Have; finished
  2. -______ you ______anywhere before? -Yes, but I can't remember where I______
  A. Did; surf; surfed B. Have; surfed; surfed
  C. Did; surf; have surfed D. Have; surfed; have surfed
  析: 据yet和before可知,应用现在完成时,故1题选D,2题选D。
  (二)当句中有"for +段时间"或"since +点时间"等时,主句常用现在完成时,谓语动词必须是延续性动词,若是非延续性动词,要改为延续性动词或表状态的词(短语)。如:
  1. His brother has been to Stone Forest twice______he came to Yunnan.
  A. after B. before C. since D. for
  析: 主句用的是现在完成时,而从句用的是一般过去时,故选C。
  2. Tom______the CD player for two weeks.
  A. has lent B. has borrowed C. has bought D. has had
  析: A、B、C均为非延续性动词,在肯定句中不与表"段时间"的短语连用,故选D。
  3. I______a letter from him since he left.
  A. didn't receive B. haven't got C. didn't have D. haven't heard
  析: 据since可知,应排除A、C,"hear from sb.=receive/get/have a letter from sb."意为"收到某人的来信",故选B。
 
  三、考查have/has been (to, in)/have/has gone (to)的区别。如:
  1. -Have you ever______Lintong to see the Terra Cotta Warriors? -Yes, I have.
  A. went to B. gone to C. been in D. been to
  析: 据句中的have,排除A,B项意为"去某地了",C项意为"一直呆在某地",D项意为"去过某地",符合题意,故选D。
  2. My parents ______ Shangdong for ten years.
  A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been
  析: 本题句中有"for+段时间"结构,据此可排除C,B项意为"去过某地",不合题意,D项缺介词,故选A。
 
  四、考查现在完成时与其他时态的联系和区别。如:
  1. Sun's aunt has gone there for ten years.(改成正确的句子)
  析: 非延续性动词与"段时间"连用时,除了把非延续性动词改成延续性动词外,还可把动词改为一般过去时或借助句型"It's +段时间+since+从句"进行句子转换。故答案为: Sun's aunt has been there for ten years. /Sun's aunt went there ten years ago. /It's ten years since Sun's aunt went there.
  2. Susan has been in this city for more than ten years.(改为同义句)
  ________more than ten years ____Susan ______to this city.
  析: 据上题分析,且since引导的从句要用一般过去时,故填It is, since, came。
  3. I won't go to the concert because I ____my ticket.
  A. lost B. don't lose C. have lost D. is coming
  析: 因台湾宾果28丢了票的动作发生在过去,而且对现在造成了台湾宾果28不能参加音乐会的结果,符合现在完成时所表示的含意,故选C。
  (UNIT2)过去进行时
  (注意when while as引导的时间状语从句。)
  (UNIT3)被动语态复习"三步曲"
  被动语态是动词语态的一种形式,表示主语是动作的承受者。在历年的中考题中,都有一定数量的考查被动语态的题目。因此,有必要对被动语态进行系统复习。
  第一曲:掌握被动语态的结构
  被动语态由"助动词+及物动词的过去分词"构成。不同时态的被动语态的差异主要体现在助动词be的变化上,同时助动词be还要在人称和数上与主语保持一致。现将初中阶段常见的几种时态的被动语态总结如下:
  1.一般现在时的被动语态:am/is/are+done(指及物动词的过去分词,下同)如:
  English is used all over the world.
  2.一般过去时的被动语态:was/were+done如: The picture was painted two years ago.
  3.现在进行时的被动语态:am/is/are+being+done如: The flowers are being watered by them now.
  4.现在完成时的被动语态:have(has)+been+done如:The room has been cleaned.
  5.一般将来时的被动语态:will/be going to+be+done如: The work will be finished tomorrow.
  6.含有情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+be+done如:Your homework must be handed in today. 其它几种特殊句型:
  It is said that ........ It is well known that ....... It is reported that........
  have sth done
  第二曲:掌握主动语态变被动语态的方法
  把主动语态变为被动语态时,应走好以下三步:1)主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语; 2)主动语态的谓语动词由主动语态形式变为被动语态形式; 3)主动结构的主语变为介词by的宾语,组成介词短语,放在被动结构的谓语动词之后。在无须说明动作的执行者或只强调动作的承受者时,by短语可以省略。请看示范:
  主动语态:My brother repaired that bike yesterday.
  主语 谓语动词 宾语其余部分
  被动语态:That bike was repaired (by my brother) yesterday.
  主语 谓语动词 by+宾语其余部分
  对于主动语态变为被动语态方法的考查,主要在句型转换题目中出现。只要能够按照上面介绍的方法去做,一般是能够做对的。
  第三曲:注意主动语态变为被动语态的几种特殊句型
  1.含有短语动词的被动语态
  一般来说,只有及物动词才有被动语态。另外,许多不及物动词加上介词或副词构成的短语动词,相当于及物动词,后面也可加宾语。在变被动语态时,注意不可丢掉后面的介词或副词,常见的这类短语动词有:take care of, look after, take off, look at, send for, look up等。如:
  The old people should be taken good care of.
  2.含有双宾语的动词的被动语态
  含有双宾语的主动句改为被动句时,应将其中一个宾语改为被动结构的主语,另一个宾语仍保留在原处。一种情况是把间接宾语(指人)变为主语,直接宾语(指物)不变。另一种情况是把直接宾语(指物)变为主语,间接宾语(指人)不变,这时,间接宾语前通常加介词to,有时加for。如:
  My father gave me a new book on my birthday.→
  I was given a new book (by my father) on my birthday. (间接宾语作了主语)
  A new book was given to me (by my father) on my birthday. (直接宾语作了主语)
  3.带有复合宾语的动词的被动语态
  带有复合宾语(宾语和宾语补足语)的主动语态变为被动语态时,只把宾语变为被动语态的主语,原来的宾语补足语不动。同时,如果宾语补足语是省略to的动词不定式,变为被动语态时,必须加上不定式符号to,这类动词有make, let, see, hear, watch等。如:
  We find English very useful.→ English is found very useful.
  宾语  宾补
  I often hear him sing in his room.→ He is often heard to sing in his room.
  宾语 宾补
  4.有的动词的主动形式可以表示被动意义,这类动词有: wash, sell, smell, taste, sound, feel等。如:
  The books sell well. The food tastes good.
  以上四种情况在中考题目中经常出现,同学们在碰到类似题目时,应首先分析属于哪种情况,然后再根据掌握的知识来做题。
 
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